What are Meta classes in Python?

In this tutorial, we will learn What meta classes in Python meta classes are nothing but the classes whose instances are classes only. Or we can also be called it the classes of the class. which has tasks to complete as defined by the behavior of the class at the time of the creation.

We create meta classes as we can get hands on the behavior or the class using it as it creates its own attributes and even behaves as an instance of itself. To understand it in a better way follow the example given below and implement as per requirements.


Meta Classes

we may see the example of meta classes by creating a class that is inhabited by type or we may do the same in some other way which is defining meta class attributes in the class definitions, Here we are taking an example of a second case where we were given the attribute metaclass in the class definition.

class MyMeta( type):
    def __ new__( cls, name, bases, attrs):
        # modify the attributes of the class here
        attrs[ "my_ attribute"] = "Hello, world!"
        return super().__ new__( cls, name, bases, attrs)

class My Class( metaclass= MyMeta):

obj = My Class()
print (obj. my_ attribute) # output: "Hello, world!"

In the given example, my meta class is a metaclass which has the attributes of my class

There are a number of advanced features in metaclass which are not there in the normal class which is as followed.

  1. Creating single-tone classes:- It is a way to ensure that only one instance of the class should be created and helps in controlling the number of instances.
  2. It also creates ORM frameworks:- ORM referees to Object Relational Mapping which maps the classes to databases.
  3. Creating the interfaces: It is also used for creating abstract classes or interfaces.
  4. Creating Decorators: It is also used for creating decorators  which help in modifying or adding, removing the behaviors of the class as per our choice when we need it


To learn more about What are Meta classes in Python visit: Meta classes by real python.


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